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Keyword Short Definition
binary notation a number system that has 2 numerical symbols in its "alphabet" for example: 0, 1, 10, 11, 100, 101, 110, 111, 1110, 1111, 10000, ...
bit mask bit masks are used to separate binary numbers into two parts: the part that matters, and the part that doesn't
bitwise AND operation bitwise AND operations take two binary numbers and compare each digit individually, following specific logical rules, for example: b00110011 AND b00001111 is b00000011
bitwise NOT operation bitwise NOT operations takes one binary numbers and compare each digit individually, following specific logical rules, for example: b00110011 is b11001100
bitwise OR operation bitwise OR operations take two binary numbers and compare each digit individually, following specific logical rules, for example: b00110011 AND b00001111 is b00111111
bitwise XOR operation bitwise XOR operations (exclusive OR) take two binary numbers and compare each digit individually, following specific logical rules, for example: b00110011 AND b00001111 is b00111100
decimal notation a number system that has 10 numerical symbols in its "alphabet" for example: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 ...
hexadecimal notation a number system that has 16 numerical symbols in its "alphabet" for example: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F, 10, 11, ...
immediate value a number hard coded into the program
ISA Instruction Set Architecture
sign extension when performing on functions on two numbers of different bit sizes, pad the shorter number with 0s if it is positive or 1s if it is negative until it is the same size of the larger number
two's complement a standard binary representation of positive and negative integers

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